#### Syllabus

**APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS-I **

Course Objectives

1. Understand the types of steam generators, boiler mountings and accessories.

2. Compute boiler performance.

3. Understand the theory of Rankine cycle.

4. Apply the theory of Rankine cycle to solve numerical problems.

5. Understand various types of nozzles and their utility.

6. Derive the formulae for critical pressure and discharge and nozzle efficiency.

7. Apply the above formulae to solve simple numerical problems.

8. Understand the constructional details of impulse steam turbine.

9. Understand the theory of impulses turbine.

10. Compute impulse turbine performance using above theory.

11. Understand the working of rejection turbine.

12. Derive blade efficiency and calculate blade height.

13. Understand methods of attachment of blades to turbine rotor.

14. Understand the losses, labyrinth packing and governing of steam turbines.

15. Understand the functions, constructional details of various types of condensers.

16. Apply Dalton’s law to solve numerical problems.

17. Compute condenser performance parameters.

18. Understand effect of air leakage and its prevention in condensers.

19. Understand the use of compressed air and types of air compressors.

20. Study the operation of single and multi stage reciprocating compressors and compute their performance parameters.

Detailed Contents

1. Combustion: Combustion problems in boiler and IC Engines, Stoichimetric (or Chemically) air fuel ratio, analysis of products of combustion, conversion of volumetric analysis into gravimetric analysis and vise-versa, actual weight of air supplied, use of mols. For solution of combustion problems.

2. Properties of Steam and Steam Generators: Pure substance constant pressure formation of steam, steam tables , constant volume, constant pressure and isentropic processes, simple Rankine cycle. Steam Generators Classification, Fire and water tube boilers; Description of Cochran, Locomotive, Lancashire, Babcock and Wilcox boilers, Stirling Boiler, mountings and accessories; Economiser, super heater etc. Modern high pressure boilers. Characteristics of high pressure boilers, Advantages of forced circulation, steam accumulators, boiler performance-equivalent evaporation, boiler efficiency.

3. Rankine Cycle: Simple, methods of improving efficiency, Feed water heating (Bleeding), reheat cycle, combined reheat regenerative cycle, Ideal working fluid – Binary vapour cycle , combined power and heating cycles.

4. Nozzle: Types and utility of nozzles, Flow of steam through nozzles, Critical pressure and discharge, Area of throat and exit for maximum discharge, Effect of friction, Nozzle efficiency, Supersaturated flow.

5. Impulse Steam Turbines: General description, Pressure and velocity compounding, Velocity diagram and work done, Effect of blade friction on velocity diagram, Stage efficiency and overall efficiency, Reheat factor and condition curve.

6. Reaction Turbines: Degree of reaction, velocity diagrams; Blade efficiency and its derivation; calculation of blade height; back pressure and extraction turbines and congeneration; Economic assesment. Methods of attachment of blades to turbine rotor; losses in steam turbines; Governing of steam turbines; Labyrinth packing.

7. Condensers: Function Elements of condensing plant. Different types, Dalton’s law of partial pressures applied to condenser problems; condenser and vacuum efficiencies. Cooling water calculations. Effect of air leakage, Methods to check and prevent air infiltration. Description of air pump and calculation of its capacity.

8. Reciprocating Air Compressors Use of compressed air in industry. Classification of air compressors, Operation of single stage reciprocating compressors, Work input and the best value of index of compression, Isothermal and polytropic efficiency.