#### Syllabus

nit –I

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics: Introduction; Applications; Concept of fluid; Difference

between solids, liquids and gases; Concept of continuum; Ideal and real fluids; Fluid properties:

density, specific volume, specific weight, specific gravity, viscosity (dynamic and kinematic),

vapour pressure, compressibility, bulk modulus, Mach number, surface tension and capillarity;

Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.

Unit –II

Fluid Statics: Concept of static fluid pressure; Pascal’s law and its engineering applications;

Hydrostatic paradox; Action of fluid pressure on a plane submerged surface (horizontal, vertical and

inclined): resultant force and centre of pressure; Force on a curved surface due to hydrostatic

pressure; Buoyancy and flotation; Stability of floating and submerged bodies; Metacentric height

and its determination; Periodic time of oscillation; Pressure distribution in a liquid subjected to : (i)

constant acceleration along horizontal, vertical and inclined direction (linear motion), (ii) constant

rotation.

Unit –III

Fluid Kinematics: Classification of fluid flows; Lagrangian and Euler flow descriptions; Velocity

and acceleration of fluid particle; Local and convective acceleration; Normal and tangential

acceleration; Path line, streak line, streamline and timelines; Flow rate and discharge mean velocity;

One dimensional continuity equation; Continuity equation in Cartesian (x,y,z), polar (r,θ) and

cylindrical (r,θ,z) coordinates; Derivation of continuity equation using the Lagrangian method in

Cartesian coordinates; Rotational flows: rotation, vorticity and circulation; Stream function and

velocity potential function, and relationship between them; Flow net.

Unit –IV

Fluid Dynamics: Derivation of Euler’s equation of motion in Cartesian coordinates, and along a

streamline; Derivation of Bernoulli’s equation (using principle of conservation of energy and

equation of motion) and its applications to steady state ideal and real fluid flows; Representation of

energy changes in fluid system (hydraulic and energy gradient lines); Impulse momentum equation;

Kinetic energy and momentum correction factors; Flow along a curved streamline; Free and forced

vortex motions.

Unit –V

Dimensional Analysis and Similitude: Need of dimensional analysis; Fundamental and derived

units; Dimensions and dimensional homogeneity; Rayleigh’s and Buckingham’s π - method for

dimensional analysis; Dimensionless numbers (Reynolds, Froudes, Euler, Mach, and Weber) and

their significance; Need of similitude; Geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarity; Model and

prototype studies; Similarity model laws.

Unit –VI

Internal Flows: Laminar and Turbulent Flows: Reynolds number, critical velocity, critical

Reynolds number, hydraulic diameter, flow regimes; Hagen – Poiseuille equation; Darcy equation;

Head losses in pipes and pipe fittings; Flow through pipes in series and parallel; Concept of

equivalent pipe; Roughness in pipes, Moody’s chart.

Unit –VII

Pressure and Flow Measurement: Manometers; Pitot tubes; Various hydraulic coefficients;

Orifice meters; Venturi meters; Borda mouthpieces; Notches (rectangular, V and Trapezoidal) and

weirs; Rotameters.