Physical significance of Gradient, Divergence & Curl, Relationship between Electric Field & Potential, Dielectric polarization, displacement Current, Types of polarization, Maxwell‟s Equations, Equation of EM waves in free space, velocity of EM waves, Poynting vector, Electromagnetic Spectrum ( Basic ideas of different region).
2. Magnetic Materials & Superconductivity:
Basic ideas of Dia, Para, Ferro & Ferri, Ferrites, Magnetic Anisotropy, Magnetostriction its applications in production of Ultrasonic waves, Superconductivity, Superconductors as ideal diamagnetic materials, Signatures of Superconducting state, Meissner Effect, Type I & Type II superconductors, London Equations, Introduction to BCS theory.
3. Elements of crystallography:
Unit cell, Basis, Space lattice, Crystal Systems, Miller Indices of Planes & Directions in cubic system, Continuous & Characteristic X-Rays, X-Ray Diffraction & Bragg‟s law in Crystals, Bragg‟s spectrometer, X-ray radiography.
Spontaneous & Stimulated emissions, Einstein‟s Coefficients, Population Inversion, Pumping Mechanisms, Components of a laser System, Three & four level laser systems; Ruby, He-Ne, CO2 and semiconductor Lasers, Introduction to Holography.
5. Fibre Optics:
Introduction, Acceptance Angle, Numerical Aperture, Normalized frequency, Modes of propagation, material dispersion & pulse broadening in optical fibres, fibre connectors, splices and couplers, applications of optical fibres.
6. Special Theory of Relativity:
Concept of Ether, Michelson Morley Experiment, Einstein‟s postulates, Lorentz transformation equations; length, time and simultaneity in relativity, addition of velocity, variation of mass with velocity, Mass-Energy and Energy-momentum relations.
7. Quantum Theory:
Need and origin of quantum concept, Wave-particle duality, Matter waves, Group & Phase velocities, Uncertainty Principle, Significance & normalization of wave function, Schrodinger wave equation: time independent & dependent, Eigen functions & Eigen values, particle in a box.
Nanoscale, surface to volume ratio, electron confinement, nanoparticles (1D, 2D, 3D), Nanomaterials, Unusual properties of nanomaterials, synthesis of nanomaterials- ball milling and sol-gel techniques, Carbon nanotubes (synthesis and properties), applications of nanomaterials.