MECHANCIAL MEASUREMENT AND METROLOGY
1. General Concepts Need and classification of measurements and instruments; basic and auxiliary functional elements of a measurement system; Mechanical versus electrical / electronic instruments; primary, secondary and working standards.
2. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Instruments Range and span, accuracy and precision, calibration, hysteresis and dead zone, sensitivity and linearity, threshold and resolution; speed of response, lag, fidelity and dynamic error, dead time and dead zone. Zero, first and second order systems and their response to step, ramp and sinusoidal input signals.
3. Errors in Measurement Sources of errors, systematic and random errors; statistical analysis of test-data, probable error and probability tables, ejection of test data; curve fitting, error propagation; Design and planning of experiments and report writing.
4. Metrology Line, end and wavelength standards; linear measurements - vernier scale and micrometer, vernier height gauge and depth guage; comparators - their types, relative merits and limitations; Angular measurements - sine bar, clinometer, angle guage; concept and measurement of straightness and flatness by interferometry; surface roughness - specifications and measurement by Talysurf, Measurement of major diameter, minor diameter, effective diameter, pitch, angle and form of threads for internal and external threads; measurement of tooth thickness, pitch and checking of profile for spur gears.
5. Functional Elements Review of electro-mechanical sensors and transducers - variable resistance, inductance and capacitive pick ups, photo cells and piezo-electric transducers and application of these elements for measurement of position / displacement, speed / velocity / acceleration, force and liquid level. Resistance strain guages, guage factor, bonded and unbonded guages, surface preparation and bonding technique signal conditioning and bridge circuits, temperature compensation, application of strain guages for direct, bending and torsional loads. Introduction to amplifying, transmitting and terminating devices.
6. Pressure and Flow Measurement Bourdon tube, diaphragm and bellows, vacuum measurement - Mcleod guage, thermal conductivity guage and ionisation guage; Dead weight guage tester. Electromagnetic flux meters, ultra-sonic flow meters and hot wire anemometer: flow visualisation techniques.
7. Temperature Measurement Thermal expansion methods - bimetallic thermometers, liquid-in-glass thermeter and filled-in-system thermometers; thermo-electric sensors - common thermo couples, reference junction considerations, special materials and configurations; metal resistance thermometers and thermistors; optical and total radiation pyrometers; calibration standards.
8. Speed, Force, Torque and Shaft Power Measurement Mechanical tachometers, vibration reed tachometer and stroboscope; proving ring, hydraulic and pneumatic load cells, torque on rotating shafts; Absorption, transmission and driving dynamo meters.