REFRIGERATION AND AIRCONDITIONING
1. Basic Concept Natural and Mechanical refrigeration; Application of Refrigeration; Units of refrigeration and Coefficient of performance; Refrigeration effect, cooling capacity and COP of a refrigerator; heating effect, heating capacity and COP as heat pump; Reversed Carnot cycle and its limitations
2. Bell Coleman Cycle and Aircraft Refrigeration Bell Coleman Cycle and its analysis; optimum COP and pressure ratio, necessity of air craft refrigeration - air cycle refrigeration systems and their comparison
3. Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycle Vapour compression cycle on P-V, P-H and T-S diagrams; Deviation of actual cycle from theoretical cycle; Compressor capacity and volumetric efficiency, Analysis of theoretical and actual vapour compression cycles; Effect of suction pressure, discharge pressure, subcooling, super heating and pressure drop in valves on performance and cooling capacity.
4. Vapour Compression Refrigeration with Multiple Evaporators and Compressors Compound compression with single and multiple expansion valves, water intercooling and flash intercooling; multiple load systems with single and multiple expansion valves
5. Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Cycle (No Mathematical Analysis) Principle of absorption system; components of the system; Desirable properties of absorption system refrigerant and absorbent; Aqua - ammonia absorption refrigeration system; Lithium Bromide - water absorption system; Theory of mixtures; temerature concentration and enthalpy concentration diagrams; comparison between absorption and compression systems; Electrolux refrigeration system.
6. Refrigerants Classification and nomenclature of refrigerants; Desirable thermodynamic, chemical and physical properties of refrigerants; comparative study of commonly used refrigerants and their fields of application; Azeotropes; Effect of moisture and oil miscibility; Refrigerants dying agents and antifreeze solution; leak detection and charging of refrigerants; environmental aspects of conventional refrigerants; Ecofriendly refrigerants and action plan to reduce ecological hazards.
7. Non-Conventional Refrigeration Systems (No Mathematical Analysis) Steam Jet Refrigeration; Cascade Refrigeration System; Mixed Refrigeration Systems; Vortex Tube Refrigeration, Thermoelectric cooling; Linde and Claude cycles, cryogenics and its engineering applications.
8. Air Conditioning Concept and Applications; Psychometric properties of air; Dry bulb, wet bulb and dew point temperatures; Relative and specific humidity; degree of saturation adiabatic saturation temperature, enthalpy of air and water vapours; psychometric chart. Human requirement of comforts; effective temperature and comfort charts; Industrial and comfort air conditioning.
9. Psychometric Processes Sensible heating and cooling, cooling with dehumidification; Heating with dehumidification; by-pass factor; chemical dehumidification; adiabatic mixing, air washer.
10. Calculations for Air –conditioning Load and for Rate and state of Supply Air Sources of heat load; sensible and latent heat load; sensible heat factor; appratus dew point temperature; Rate and state of supply - air for air- conditioning of different types of premises.
11. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Equipment Brief description of compressors, condensers, evaporators and expansion devices; Cooling towers; Ducts; dampers; grills; air filters; fans; room air conditioners; split units; Package and central air conditioning plants.