This is a core subject, basic knowledge of which is required by all engineers. This course aims at developing an understanding of the behavior of fluids in motion or at rest and the subsequent effects of the fluid on the boundaries. The study of this subject will develop analytical abilities related to fluid flow.
The students should be able to have Conceptual understanding of fluids and their properties. Understanding of fluid statistics, fluid kinematics and fluid dynamics. Basic knowledge of dimensional analysis and similitude. Understanding of laminar and turbulent flows and flow measurement.
1. Fluid and their properties : Concept of fluid, difference between solids, liquids and gases; ideal and real fluids; Continuum concept of fluid: density, specific weight and relative density; viscosity and its dependance on temperature; surface tension and capillarity, vapour pressure and cavitation: compressibility and bulk modulus; Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.
2. Fluid Statics : Concept of pressure, Pascal’s law and its engineering hydrostatic paradox. Action of fluid pressure on plane (horizontal, vertical and inclined) submerged surface, resultant force and center of pressure , force on a curved surface due to hydrostatic pressure. Buoyancy and floatation, stability of floating and submerged bodies, Metacentric height and its determination, rotation of liquid in a cylindrical container.
3. Fluid Kinematics: Classification of fluid flows, velocity and acceleration of fluid particle, local and convective acceleration, normal & tangential acceleration streamline, pathline and streakline, flow rate and discharge mean velocity continuity equation in Cartesian co-ordinates. Rotational flows- Rotational velocity and circulation, stream & velocity potential functions.
4. Fluid Dynamics :- Euler’s equation, Bernoulli’s equation and steady flow energy equation; representation of energy changes in fluid system, impulse momentum equation, kinetic energy and momentum correction factors, flow along a curved streamline, free and forced vortex motions.
5. Dimensional Analysis and Similitude: Fundamental and derived units and dimensions, dimensional homogeneity, Rayleigh’s and Buckingham’s Pi method for dimensional analysis, dimension less number and their significance, geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarity, model studies.
6. Laminar and turbulent Flows: Flow regimes and Reynolds number, critical velocity and critical Reynolds number, laminar flow in circular cross section pipes.Turbulent flows and flow losses in pipes, Darcy equation minor head losses in pipe fittings, hydraulic and energy gradient lines.
7. Flow Measurement:- Manometers, Pitot tubes, venturimenter and orifice meters, orifices, mouth pieces, notches and weirs.