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Syllabus

Unit-I: Solid, State

Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, points defects, electrical and magnetic properties. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.

Unit II: Solutions

Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative

properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoults Law, elevation of B.P., depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass. Vant Hoff factor.

Unit III: Electrochemistry

Redox reactions; conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea) dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion. Relation between Gibbs Energy change and EMF of cell.

Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction: rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and' half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation Energy, Arrhenious equation.

Unit V: Surface Chemistry

Absorption physiorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis; homogenous and heterogeneous,

activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular/colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion-types of emulsions.

Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of

extraction of aluminum, copper, zinc and Iron.

Unit VII: p-Block Element

Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical

properties; nitrogen - preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen- preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acids, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl3,PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).

Group16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical

properties; dioxygen; preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; Ozone. Sulphur - allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid, industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).

Group 17 elements: (General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical

properties; compounds of halogens; preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit-VIII: d and f Block Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first

row transition metals-metallic character, ionization, enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic properties, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7,and KMnO4. Lanthanoids - electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and consequences. Actenoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states.

Unit-IX: Coordination Compounds

Coordination compounds - introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding; Werner’s theory VBT, CFT, Isomerism (structure and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).

Unit-X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes.

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation. Halearenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichlromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.

Unit –XI: Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses, with special reference to - methanol and ethanol. Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit-XII: Aldehydes, Ketones aml Carboxylic Acids

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

Unit-XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary,secondary and tertiary amines. Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places in context. Dizonium Salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Unit-XIV: Biomolecules

Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccaharides (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance Proteins - Elementary idea of amino acids, peptide bond,polypeptides proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Vitamins: Classification and functions. Harmones: Elementary idea (excluding structure) Nucleic Acids: DNA & RNA .

Unit-XV: Polymers

Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers; natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and Non- Biodegradable Polymers. Unit-XVI: Chemistry in everyday life :

1. Chemicals in medicines analgesic, transquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids,

antihistamines.

2. Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents. Elementary idea of antioxidents.

3. Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

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