Electric Charges; charging by induction, basic properties of electric charge (addition of charges, quantisation of charges and their Conservation) Coulomb's law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and cotineous charge distribution. Electrical field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field due to system of charge, physical significance of electric field, electric-field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole;(on its axis,on equatorial plane)physical significance of dipoles; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.Electric field due to continuous charge distribution. Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem proof of Gauss’s theorem for a charge enclosed in sphere, and its applications to find electric field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite thin plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (Field inside and outside). Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, potential due to an electric dipole with special cases for axis and equatorial plane and system of charges; equipotential surfaces,its properties,relation between field and potential electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges potential energy in external field and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, electrostatics of conductors, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Electrostatic shielding its uses, Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaf generator.
Unit-II: Current Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, drift of electron mobility and their relation with electric current: Ohm's law, electrical resistance. V-1 characteristics (linear and non linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance and resistivity.Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications of Wheatstone bridge, meter bridge.Potentiometer-principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells, measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
Unit-III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Concept of magnetic field. Oersted's experiment; Biot-savart law and its application to find mangnetic field on the axis of a current carrying circular loop, Ampere's circuital law (no proof) and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields.Motion in a magnetic field,motion in combined electric and magnetic field (velocity selector) Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors, definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometersits current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (Bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; magnetism and Gauss’s law; Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements, magnetisation and magnetic intensity, magnetic properties of materials, Para-, dia-and ferromagnetic substances with examples, Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.
Unit-IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Electromagnetic induction, Faraday's and henry experiments,magnetic flux,Faraday laws, induced emf and current, Lenz's Law and conservation of energy, motional emf, Eddy currents: Self and mutual inductance. Alternating current, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedances; phasors, ac applied across resistance, ac applied across inductor, as applied across capacitor, ac applied across LCR, LC oscillations, across inductor, ac applied across capacitor ,ac applLC oscillations, (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit resonance; power in AC circuit, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.
Unit-V: Electromagnetic Waves
Need for displacement current, Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of lectromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (Radio waves, Radio-microwaves, infra-red, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, refraction by lens, lenses, thin lens formula/equation, lens-maker's formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, combination of lens and mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Some natural phenomenon due to sunlight,Scattering of light-blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical tetescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers. Waves optics : wave front and Huygens' Principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using Huygens’ Principle, wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens ‘Principle. Interference Young's double hole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and incoherent addition of waves and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, polarization by scattering and reflection, plane polarised light -Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.
Unit-VII: Dual nature of Matter and Radiation
Electron emission, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations'; experimental study of photoelectric effect, and wave theory of light, Einstein's photoelectric equation, particle nature of light, the photon, Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davission-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).
Unit-VIII: Atoms & Nuclei
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohar modal of hydrogen atom, expression for radius, velocity and energy of electron in orbit, energy levels, line spectrum of hydrogen atom, atomic spectra,de-Broglie’s explanation of Bohr’ s second postulate of quantization. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity- alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law, alpha, beta and gamma decay. Mass-energy relation, mass-defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear force,nuclear reactor, Nuclear energy.
Unit-XI: Electronic Devices
Classification of metal insulator and semiconductor, Energy bands in solids (qualitative idea only) conductor, insulators and Semiconductors;intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors,p-n junction, semiconductor Diode-1-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier, 1-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode, Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action; characteristics of a common emitter transistor: transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator, digital electronics and Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch,integrated circuits.
Unit-X: Communication Systems
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); basic terminology Used in Electronic Communication Systems, bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission mediumPropagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, Sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude modulated wave.
NOTE:- TOPICS GIVEN BELOW ARE IN PRESCRIBED SYLLABUS OF P.S.E.B BUT NOT MENTIONED IN BOOK SUBSCRIBED BY PSEB. SO THESE TOPICS ARE TO BE DONE WITH STUDENTS AND PAPER WILL INCLUDE THESE TOPICS AND QUESTIONS FROM THESE TOPICS WILL NOT CONSIDERED AS OUT OF SYLLABUS.
1. Electric flux
2. Potentiometer and its applications to measure potential difference
3. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (Bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis.
4. Combinations of lens and mirror
5. Poor of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens ‘Principle’.
6. Alpha-beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties